Abnormal Pap Specialist

San Francisco Gynecology, INC. Katherine Gregory MD -  - Gynecologist

San Francisco Gynecology, INC. Katherine Gregory MD

Gynecologist located in Union Square, San Francisco, CA

As a leading OB/GYN serving the San Francisco area, Dr. Gregory helps women of all ages address all their reproductive health concerns. At San Francisco Gynecology, Dr. Gregory can provide women with annual pap exams and treatment for any abnormalities found.

Abnormal Pap Q & A

What is an Abnormal Pap?

A pap exam, or pap smear, is a procedure used by gynecologist to examine a woman’s cervix and the surrounding tissues. This procedure can let a doctor and woman know if there are any issues present. When a pap exam’s results come back reading abnormal, it means some changes have been found. Occasionally, they can be cancerous.

What Causes the Cells to Read as Abnormal?

When cells are collected from the cervix during a pap exam they can come back as abnormal for numerous reasons. Usually the results will fall into one of three categories: Irregular or Irritated, Precancerous, and Cancerous. Irritated or irregular cells are caused by inflammation or hyperkeratosis. Inflammation is usually the result of an infection and hyperkeratosis describes the presence of dead or dried skin cells, usually caused by using a cervical diaphragm or cap. Precancerous cells are cells which have the potential to become cancerous and appear to be on the verge of malignancy. Cancerous cells can also be found during a pap exam and both these and precancerous cells will require further testing if found.

How are Abnormal Cells Treated?

How abnormal cells are treated will depend on which type of abnormal cell category the cells fall under. If the cause of the abnormality is an irritation or infection, a doctor will usually prescribe a form of medication such as an anti-inflammatory or antibiotic. If the cells have come back reading as precancerous, the doctor will usually call for further testing where the cells can be examined more closely such as a biopsy. When a biopsy is performed the cells will either be determined to be benign or malignant. If cancerous or malignant cells are found during the initial exam or the biopsy, the doctor will usually suggest surgery where the affected tissue is removed. Depending on how large the affected area is, more invasive surgeries may be required. The doctor will discuss every type of treatment option available with you and will make sure to educate you about what your particular abnormal reading is pointing to.


Insurance Information

We work with many different insurance companies. We currently are not in network with individual plans. These are plans purchased through a broker, directly or covered-ca. Please contact us for more information.

  Regence Blue Cross Blue Shield
Blue Cross
Blue Shield
Brown & Toland
Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield
Fortified Provider Network
GEHA Health Plans
Great West Health Care
GWH-Cigna (formerly Great West Healthcare)
Harvard Pilgrim Health Care
Health Net
Oxford (UnitedHealthcare)